The Simien Mountains National Park in Northern Ethiopia is an exotic setting with unique wildlife and breath-taking views on a landscape shaped by nature and traditional agriculture. The natural beauties of this region have always filled visitors from Ethiopia and abroad with awe. Gentle highland ridges at altitudes above 3600 meters above sea level (m asl), covered with grasses, isolated trees (Erica &bored) and the bizarre Giant Lobelia (Lobelia rhynchopetalum) are found on the high plateau that ends abruptly at 1000- to 2000-m deep escarpments.
The margins of this high plateau consist of precipitous cliffs and deep, canyon-style gorges. In some places, the escarpment forms small elevations that offer splendid natal lookout points. The spectacular views from the observation points at Gidir Got and lmet Gogo in the center of the Park offer unparalleled panoramas along the high plateau and down to the lowland areas. Given the right meteorological conditions, views reaching up to a hundred kilometers over the valleys and the terraces of the Tekeze lowland basin are no exception. Geologically speaking, the entire highlands of the Simien mountains consist of dark Trapp basalt and bright, soft turf. They alternate and constitute a massive complex that is more than 3000 m thick. This complex was formed by volcanic eruptions in the Tertiary Oligocene-Miocene Age some 20-30 million years ago; ever since, it has been going through processes of uplifting and erosion.
The main attraction of the Simien Moumains National Park is its biosphere: the steep cliffs and the cool climate at the altitude of the Erica tree line (3600 to 4000 m ash) have created conditions that are appropriate for the survival of an ibex species (Capra ibex wee) endemic to the Simien Mountains. Despite the severe restriction of their habitat over the last centuries, several hundred animals have survived up to the present. Apart from the Walya ibex, many other animal species are found in the Park, for example the endemic Simien fox or Ethiopian wolf (Canis .071817,51-3 simony’s), several birds of prey, the endemic Gelada baboon ( Theropithecusgelada), the Klippspringer (Oreotragus omotragus), and the bush buck (liagelphus scriptus). The rareness of these species formed the backbone of the concept for conservation of the area, which led to the establishment of the Simien Mountains National Park in 1969, and its listing as a World Heritage Site in 1918.
The human population living in the area adds to the distinctiveness of this special natural environment. The traditional lifestyle of the rural population and their survival in a rather harsh climate and with scarce natural resources make for the most striking impressions a visitor will have when trekking in the Park and its surrounding rural area. Simien Mountains Flora and Fauna.
The varied topography of the Simien Mountains National Park offers a habitat to a wide range of animals and plants. The following is a compilation of data on some prominent endemic species found in the Park.
Walya ibex (Capra ibex wake)
The Walya ibex has become a national symbol, and the species is the primary asset for tourism development in the Simien Mountains. It is endemic to the Simien Mountains, and is one of the most endangered mammal species in the world. The low number of animals, poaching, and the very restricted areas of remaining habitat threatened to eradicate the species altogether. Walya ibex live on the steep slopes and grassy ledges of the escarpment. Their number, as estimated by international experts, fluctuated from around 150 individuals in 1969 to about 400 in 1989. and to 250 individuals in 1996 (Nievergelt et al., 1998). Recent counts by the local Park staff estimate that the number of Walya ibex has risen (2003).
Walya ibex seem to react flexibly to direct pressure and to impacts on their habitat. While their main habitat was the central part of the present National Park in the mid-1960s, they expanded their habitat to the area around Sankaber and to the eastern part of the high plateau after the establishment of the National Park in 1969. Military fighting in the western areas near Sankaber in 1989 and 1990 led to intense disturbance of the animals, which was further exacerbated by increased poaching in these areas. Die surviving ibex moved towards the eastern parts of the Park and beyond, and were increasingly sported in the most inaccessible parts of the escarpment.
Most of the threats to long-term protection of the species are caused by human disturbance. In 1994, an estimated 15,000 people were living or cultivating land within the Simien Mountains National Park (Hurni and Luth, 2000). Pans of the steep cliffs — representing the main habitat of Walya ibex — are used for (shifting) cultivanon, livestock grazing and fuelwood collection. This steadily expanding human use leads to soil degradation and overgrazing, and finally to the use of areas that are only marginally suitable for agriculture.
Simien fox or Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis simensis)
The second large mammal found in the Park is the Simien fox. This species is endemic to Ethiopia. It was already rare in the Simien Mountains when the National Park was established. In 1990, the species was registered as endangered in the Red Data Book of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The Shen fox population in the Simien Mountains is estimated to be only about 40 animals. approximately one quarter of which live within Park boundaries. Simien foxes are mostly found in afro-alpine mountain habitats at altitudes above 3600 m asl. A larger population lives in the Bale Mountains National Park in southern Ethiopia. With a total number of less than 400 animals in Ethiopia. it is questionable whether the species is in a position to ensure population viability in the long term. As with the Walya ibex, the main threat for the species is poaching and decreasing habitat.
Gelada baboon (Thempithecus gelada)
The Gelada baboon, also called ‘The Bleeding Heart Baboon’, is endemic to Ethiopia. The animals are found on most of the highland plateaus of the Simien Mountains, inside and outside the Park, and their total number has been estimated at more than 3000 animals. Due to the absence of natural enemies, the population is still on the increase. The baboons live in herds of 100 to 200 animals, and their occurrence has been reported from most highland areas above 3000 m asl. As the Gelada baboons are not too shy, the animals can easily be approached. The main diet of the Gelada baboon consists of grasses and roots. This has led to conflicts with peasants, who fear extensive destruction of their crops.